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Defending the Liberal Arts

Defending the Liberal Arts

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At a recent conference entitled “What is Liberal Education For?,” scholars gathered at St. John’s College in Santa Fe, New Mexico to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of its Santa Fe campus as well as to continue the debate about the merits of a wide, knowledge-encompassing degree versus something more practical and focused. St. Johns, known for its Great Books program that provides students with the opportunity to read and discuss many of the classic books in literature, philosophy, and the arts, provides a more classic approach to studying the liberal arts than other colleges and universities.

Inside Higher Education reporter Colleen Flaherty wrote about three individuals who presented their arguments for the merits of a liberal arts education. The arguments were similar to many previously reported elsewhere: a broad-based education is important for contributing to an individual’s historical consciousness, a liberal arts education is important for an individual’s ability to thrive outside of work, and a liberal arts education is important for an individual’s ability to apply critical thinking skills to practical applications.Liberal Arts

As a graduate of a liberal arts program, I appreciate the scholarly arguments about critical thinking and broad-based learning. However, some of the defenders of the cause (myself included) need to take a realistic look at how much college has changed over the past 30 years and why a liberal arts education may not be as attractive to individuals as it once was.

First of all, approximately 20 percent of today’s college students are traditional 18-year-olds attending college full time after graduating from high school. The composition of the “majority” of college students ranges from traditional age (18-24) students working full time and attending college part time to much older college students working full time and attending part time who have come back to college to complete a degree in order to enhance their career or employment prospects. Work is a dominant factor in these students’ lives. Expecting that a degree in History or English or Philosophy would be attractive to these students is overly optimistic. It is understandable that non-traditional students would focus on time to degree completion as well as the relevance of a degree/program major to employment prospects.

During my more traditional route of undergraduate education, I remember embracing the wide diversification of subjects that I selected for classes and thinking that all of them were good preparation for my next round in formal education, graduate school. Even though I was a financial aid student, monetary considerations weren’t as important as today given that my four years of tuition, fees, room and board at Duke University in the 1970s were approximately $12,000 total. That’s vastly different from a $250,000 four-year education at a private college or university today or even $100,000 for the all-in costs of attendance at a flagship public university. Add the consideration of time for degree completion to the consideration of cost and it’s easy to understand why critics call for a more utilitarian education.

I believe that it is unlikely that enrollments in liberal arts programs will return to their historical highs anytime soon, particularly if we don’t find ways to decrease the cost of college, the time to complete a degree, and the expectation of employers that college graduates should be able to understand non-liberal arts topics like finance and accounting.

To lower the costs of college, we could always build out liberal arts degrees utilizing MOOCs, but we’d have to find ways to improve the MOOC completion rates as well as improve ways of providing online discussions of the writings and subjects that create and stimulate the intellect and lead to the development of critical thinking skills. We would also have to find a way to shorten the time to degree completion if a more utilitarian master’s degree like an MBA is to be paired with an undergraduate liberal arts degree. A possible short-term solution could be a liberal arts certificate paired with an undergraduate business degree. That wouldn’t solve the broader issue for the purists, but perhaps a broadening of the perspective would increase the numbers of students taking liberal arts courses leading to a few deciding to change their degrees or to come back for a second degree in a liberal arts program.

If we don’t look for outside the box solutions, it’s likely that the number of liberal arts graduates will continue to shrink. That would be sad, but understandable.

 

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Wally Boston Dr. Wallace E. Boston was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of American Public University System (APUS) and its parent company, American Public Education, Inc. (APEI) in July 2004. He joined APUS as its Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in 2002. In July 2016, he retired as APUS president and continued as CEO of APEI. In September 2017, he was reappointed APUS president after the resignation of Dr. Karan Powell. In September 2019, Angela Selden was named CEO of APEI, succeeding Dr. Boston who will remain APUS president until his planned retirement in June 2020. Dr. Boston guided APUS through its successful initial accreditation with the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association in 2006 and ten-year reaccreditation in 2011. In November 2007, he led APEI to an initial public offering on the NASDAQ Exchange. During his tenure, APUS grew to over 100,000 students, 200 degree and certificate programs, and approximately 90,000 alumni. In addition to his service as a board member of APUS and APEI, Dr. Boston is a member of the Board of Advisors of the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA), a member of the Board of Overseers of the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education, a board member of the Presidents’ Forum, and a board member of Hondros College of Nursing and Fidelis, Inc. He has authored and co-authored papers on the topic of online post-secondary student retention, and is a frequent speaker on the impact of technology on higher education. Dr. Boston is a past Treasurer of the Board of Trustees of the McDonogh School, a private K-12 school in Baltimore. In his career prior to APEI and APUS, Dr. Boston served as either CFO, COO, or CEO of Meridian Healthcare, Manor Healthcare, Neighborcare Pharmacies, and Sun Healthcare Group. Dr. Boston is a Certified Public Accountant, Certified Management Accountant, and Chartered Global Management Accountant. He earned an A.B. degree in History from Duke University, an MBA in Marketing and Accounting from Tulane University’s Freeman School of Business Administration, and a Doctorate in Higher Education Management from the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education. In 2008, the Board of Trustees of APUS awarded him a Doctorate in Business Administration, honoris causa, and, in April 2017, also bestowed him with the title President Emeritus. Dr. Boston lives in Owings Mills, MD with his wife Sharon and their two daughters.

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